About Georgia

Name: Georgia
Area: 69700 square kilometers

Population: 4,630,841
Population Density: 75.6 1 people per square kilometers


National Flag
Coat of Arms
State Flag State Emblem

Capital: Tbilisi
Population: 1, 225, 000

Main Cities: Kutaisi, Batumi, Zugdidi, Rustavi, Poti.
The majority of the population (65%) is Orthodox.
In Georgia there live people of almost all religions: Muslims, Apostolic Orthodox Armenians, Jews, Buddhists etc.

Location - Georgia is located on the borders of Europe and Asia, specifically in the Caucasus region. It borders the Black Sea from the west, Russian Federation from the north, Azerbaijan from the south east and Armenia and Turkey from the south.
36% of the territory of Georgia is located at an altitude of 1500 meters. The terrain is mountainous. The country has two peaks with the height of 5000 meters - Shkhara (5068 m) and Kazbegi ( 5037 m). It is distinguished with the diversity of landscape and resorts, is rich in subtropical beaches, dense forests, deserts and alpine mountains.

One of the uniqueness of Georgia is the fact that in summer you can swim in the sea and have sunbath and also ski in the mountains at the same time. Georgia is known for its diverse landscape and biodiversity - unique species of plants are preserved in reserves and national parks.

Climate - Despite the small territory of Georgia, the country has almost all climatic zones from humid subtropical climate to the snowy glaciers. The climate is continental – subtropical. The average temperature in summer is +25 degrees Celsius, in winter +3 degrees Celsius.
The official language is Georgian. It belongs to the Kartvelian group of Ibero - Caucasian languages. It has its own script and alphabet. The Georgian alphabet is one of the fourteen alphabets of the world. It was created in the pre-Christian era and Parnavaz, the first king of the united Georgia, is considered to be its creator. The modern Georgian alphabet consists of 33 letters and is written from left to right.

The first literary work "Martyrdom of Queen Shushanik" was written in 476-483. "The Knight in the Panther's Skin" - is the only work of Shota Rustaveli (12th century) that reached our times. It is considered to be a masterpiece of the world literature.
The national currency of Georgia is Lari (Gel). One Lari consists of 100 Tetries. The term “Lari” is an old-Georgian word and means treasure, while “Tetri”(one hundredth of one Lari) is an old-Georgian money term that was used in the 13th century.
In Georgia there are used notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 Laries, coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 Tetries and 1 and 2 Laries.
All of the payments are in GEL.
History - Georgia is a country of the ancient civilization. Its territory was populated even 1.7-1.8 million years ago. This fact is proven by the results of archaeological excavations in Dmanisi, south eastern Georgia, in 1999. Archaeologists discovered a skull of a human. It is considered to be the oldest inhabitant of Eurasia and is called "the First European".
Georgia was crossed by the important trade route known as "Silk Road". It connected India and Central Asia to Europe. On the one hand, it contributed to the country's socio - political and economic development and on the other hand, due to the favorable strategic location, it was repeatedly attacked by invaders.

It is considered that the ancestors of Georgian created the first tribe in the Caucasus region earlier than 2000 BC. Kingdom of Colchis, which was created in the 6th century BC, was often mentioned in Homer's poems and Greek mythology. The territory was inhabited since the early Stone Age in the 4th-6th century BC. In the Classical ancient period Georgian states of Colchis and Iberia were flourished and gave the rise to the Georgian culture and statehood.

In 337, King Mirian converted to Christianity and it became the country's official religion. Georgian Church broke away from Rome in 506 and founded the Georgian Orthodox Church, the centre of which became Tbilisi. A town of Tbilisi became the capital city of Iberia. In the 8th – 9th centuries it was the capital of Georgia. The kingdom was under the rule of Iran, then Byzantine and Arabia in the 6th - 10th centuries. Feudal Georgia flourished in the reign of King David the Builder (1089-1125) and Queen Tamar (1184-1213).


In the 15th century it dismembered into small kingdoms and became a matter in territorial disputes between Turkey and Iran in the 16th – 18th centuries. In 1783, King Erekle II was forced to make a treaty with Catherine II and give Kartli and Kakheti, the great parts of Georgia, to Russia.

In 1801, Russia broke the agreement and invaded the western part of Georgia. Since then Georgians have been fighting for their independence.

From 1924 to 1991 Georgia was a member of the Soviet Union.
Georgia gained independence in 1991.




You can find further information at the website of the president of Georgia: http://president.gov.ge